KO E FAKALELEI KI HE LAO ‘O E KELEKELE, KO E MATAPA IA KI HE NOFO MELINO ‘I TONGA ‘I HE VA ‘O E KAKAI, TU’I MO E HOUEIKI. (KONGA 1)

KO E LAO KELEKELEKELE ‘A TONGA ‘OKU NE FAKATUPUNGA ‘A E FETO’AKI ‘I HE TOTONU ‘A E KAU NOPELE MO E KAKAI TU’A. PEA ‘OKU FIEMA’U ‘E HE PAATI TEMOKALAATI ‘A TONGA KE FAI HA LILIU KI HE LAO KELEKELE ‘I HE KAHA’U VAVE MAI.  (KONGA 1)

NEONGO  ‘OKU FAKAHISITOLIA PEA MA’ONGO’ONGA ‘A E NGAAHI LILIU MO E FAKALELEI KUO FAKAHOKO KI HE LAO ‘I TONGA ‘I HE LAUI SENITULI, KA ‘OKU ‘IKAI MAVAHE ‘A E NGAAHI LAO KO IA’ MEI HE MALUMALU ‘O E KONISITUTONE FAKATU’I. HE ‘OKU NE MAPULE’I ‘A TONGA KOTOA ‘I HE FOUNGA ‘OKU HULU ATU ‘A ‘ENE PULE FAKATIKITATO. KO HONO ‘UHINGA HE KO E TU’I MO E KUINI ‘OKU NA MAPULEA ‘A E PULE’ANGA TONGA.

NE LAUI SENITULI FOKI ‘A HONO MAPULEA ‘O TONGA ‘E HE HOUE’IKI (CHIEFDOM) KI MU’A IA PEA TOKI LILIU KI HE PULE’ANGA FAKATU’I (KINGDOM). NA ‘E MAPULEA ‘E HE HOU’EIKI ‘A E NGAAHI KOLO ‘O A’U KI HE NGAAHI ‘OTUMOTU KOTOA ‘O TONGA PEA NA ‘E MAHINO ‘A E FEÁUÁUHI KI HE MAFAI MO E KOLOA ‘O E FONUÁ, ‘I HE FOUNGA NA ‘E FU’U MATU’AKI FAKAILIFIA MO FAKALILIFU FOKI.

NEONGO NA ‘E FAKALAO’I ‘A E KONISITUTONE FAKATU’I (CONSTITUTIONAL MONACHY) ‘I HE 1875, KA NA ‘E KEI HOKOHOKO ATU PE ‘A HONO MAPULEA ‘E HE HOU’EIKI ‘A E FONUA (CHIEFDOM) PEA ‘OKU KEI HOKOHOKO MAI PE ‘O A’U MAI KI HE ‘AHO NI ‘O TAUMU’A KE KEI HOKOHOKO ATU PE.

KO HONO PULE’I MO HONO FAKALAHI ‘O E MAFAI PULE ‘O E HOU’EIKI NE KAMATA MAI MEI HE ‘ULUAKI TU’I TONGA ‘I HE 950 C.E.  KO E MAFAI PULE KO IA NE FAKAHOKO FAKATATAU KI HONAU VA MO E TU’I TONGA. KO E FOUNGA HONO MAPULEA ‘O E KELEKELE NA ‘E FAI ‘I HE FOUNGA FAKAMALOHI ‘O FAKAHIKIHIKI’I ‘AKI ‘E HE NGAAHI HOU’EIKI ‘I LALO, ‘A E HOU’EIKI ‘OKU TO E MA’OLUNGA ANGE. NA ‘E FAKAFOU LEVA HONO TUFA ‘O E KELEKELE ‘I HE KAU MATAPULE (CHIEFS’ ATTENDANTS) ‘O TOKI VAHEVAHE AI KI HE KAKAI (COMMONERS) ‘O E NGAAHI KOLO. NA ‘E MAFAI PE ‘A E HOU’EIKI KENAU TO’O PE FAKANGATA ‘A E NGAAHI TOTONU MA’U KELEKEKE MEI HE KAKAI. ‘A IA NA ‘E NGAUE’I ‘E HE KAKAI ‘O E KOLO ‘A E KELEKELE KI HE NGOUE PEA TO’O LEVA ‘E HE HOU’EIKI HA FA’AHINGA ‘INASI PE TENAU FIE TO’O. KO E FOUNGA KO ‘ENI KO E FOUNGA IA ‘A E PULE FAKATIKITATO, ‘OKU ‘IKAI KO HA FOUNGA TOTONU IA ‘O HA TAHA ‘OKU ‘A’ANA ‘A E KELEKELE (LANDLORD). KO E FOUNGA IA ‘OKU ANGAMAHENI KI AI ‘A E MAFAI PULE ‘O E HOU’EIKI (CHIEFDOM).

HOKO MAI ‘A E TAU FAKALOTOFONUA ‘A TONGA ‘I HE 1797. TAU’I ‘E TAUFA’AHAU ‘A E NGAAHI MOTU PEA FAKALAHI FOKI MO HONO MAFAI. KO E TAU ‘ENI NA ‘E MAHINO ANGE ‘ENE FAKAILIFIA KOE’UHI KO HONO NGAUE’AKI KOIA ‘A E NGAAHI ME’AFANA. ‘I HE 1830 NE TALI AI ‘E TAUFA’AHAU ‘A E LOTU FAKAKALISITIANE ‘O FAKANOFO KI AI MO HONO HINGOA FO’OU KO KING GEORGE, KO E FAKAHINGOA KI HE TU’I PILITANIA. ‘AU MAI KI HE 1833 NE PULE’I AI ‘E TAUFA’AHAU ‘A HA’APAI MO VAVA’U. KO E 1839 NE FOKOTU’U AI ‘E KING GEORGE ‘A E TU’UTU’UNI ‘OKU ‘ILOA KO E “VAVA’U CODE 1839”. KO E TU’UTU’UNI KO ‘ENI NE FILI AI ‘A E KAU FAKAMAAU KENAU PULE’I ‘A E NGAAHI ME’A FELAVE’I MO E FAIHIA (CRIMINAL MATTERS.  NE FAKAHA ‘E HE TU’UTU’UNI KI HE KAU FAKAMAAU, KUOPAU KE TATAU ‘ENAU FAKAMAAU’I ‘A E TOKOTAHA KOTOA PE. NA ‘E HOKO ‘ENI ‘O ‘IKAI KE TO E ‘AVE FAKAMALOHI’I AI ‘E HE HOU’EIKI ‘A E NGAAHI KOLOA ‘A E KAKAI TU’A (COMMONERS) KOE’UHI KUOPAU KE FAKAMAAU’I KINAUTOLU ‘O TATAU PE MO E KAKAI TU’A. NE HOKO HONO FOKOTU’U ‘O E KAU FAKAMAAU KE FAKANGATANGATA AI ‘A E MAFAI PULE ‘O E HOU’EIKI.

NE A’U MAI KI HE 1845, NE FAKA’OFISIALE AI HONO FAKANOFO ‘O KING GEORGE KO E TU’I ‘O TONGA. ‘O FOKOTU’U AI ‘I TONGA ‘I HE 1850 ‘A E FO’I LAO TA’EUE’IA KI HE KELEKELE’ ‘O MALUMALU AI ‘A E TONGA KOTOA PE, KAU KI AI MO E HOU’EIKI. KO E LAO FEKAU’AKI MO E KELEKELE, ‘E TAPU KE FAKATAU ‘A E KELEKELE KI HA TANGATA’I FONUA MULI PEA FAKANGOFUA HONO LISI ATU ‘O E KELEKELE KA KUO PAU KE FAKAPAASI MEI HE PULE’ANGA. (CODE OF LAW 1850)

‘I HE 1862 NE FAKANGATA AI ‘E TUPOU 1 ‘A E NGAUE POPULA MO E ‘AVE ‘INASI. NE FAKAHA LEVA KI HE HOU’EIKI KE TUFA ‘A E KELEKELE KI HE KAKAI KE FAI AI ‘ENAU NGOUE PEA ‘E TAPU KI HE HOU’EIKI KENAU TO’O HA KELEKELE ‘O HA TAHA ‘OKAPAU NA ‘E TOTONGI ‘E HE TOKOTAHA KO IA HONO MO’UA (RENT) MO FAI HONO FATONGIA KO E FAKALANGILANGI’I ‘O E HOU’EIKI. (EMANCIPATION EDICT 1862).

‘IKAI KEHE, ‘OKU HOKO FOKI ‘A E EMANCIPATION EDICT 1862 KE HOKOHOKO ATU PE ‘A E NGAAHI FETA’EFIEMALIE’AKI ‘I HE VAHA’A ‘O E HOU’EIKI MOE KAKAI TU’A FEKAU’AKI MO E TOTONU KI HE KELEKELE. HE ‘OKU KEI MA’U PE ‘E HE HOU’EKI ‘A E MAFAI LAHI KE MA’U FAKALANGILANGI (TRIBUTE) MO E TOTONGI MO’UA (RENT) MEI HE KAKAI TU’A ‘OKU NOFO ‘I HONAU KELEKELE.

KO E TAIMI NE TUKU MAI AI ‘E TUPOU 1 ‘A E KONISITUTONE ‘A TONGA ‘I HE 1875, NA’A NE ‘AVE AI ‘A E NI’IHI ‘O E HOU’EIKI ‘O FOKOTU’U KO ‘ENE KAU NOPELE. KO E HOKOHOKO ATU PE IA ‘A HONO TAUHI ‘A E TUKUFAKAHOLO ‘O E KUOHILI. NA ‘E ‘AMANAKI ‘A E TOKOLAHI KO E LILIU LELEI ‘ENI ‘I HONO FOKOTU’U ‘A E KONISITUTONE ‘A TONGA. KA KO E ME’A KE FAKATOKANGA’I ‘E HE KAKAI TU’A, ‘OKU ‘OANGE ‘E HE KONISITUTONE ‘A TONGA ‘A E MAFAI LAHI ‘AUPITO KI HE KAU NOPELE MO HONAU NGAAHI TOFI’A.

‘I HE ‘ENE PEHEE LEVA, ‘OKU TU’U FAKATAHA ‘A E TU’I MO E ‘ENE KAU NOPELE KE MALU’I ‘A E FO’I SISTEMI KI HONO FAKALELE ‘O E KELEKELE ‘I TONGA. (LAND TENURE SYSTEM) ‘A HONO MAPULE’I KE MALU HONO NGÃUE’AKI ‘O E KELEKELE PEA MO E FOUNGA HONO TUKU ATU ‘AKI HA KELEKELE KI HE KAKAI. KOE’UHI KE ‘OUA NA’A FAIFAI KUO UESIA, PE ‘E MOTUHIA MEI HONAU SIAKALE HE KUO FAKA’A’AU KE ‘ALU PE ‘A E TAIMI MO E TO E MA’OLUNGA ANGE ‘A E FIEMA’UA ‘O E KELEKELE ‘I TONGA.

KA KOE’UHI KO E NGAAHI NGÃUE KUO FAKAHOKO ‘E HE PAATI FAKATEMOKALATI ‘A TONGA,’ MO E LAKAFAKAHÃHÃ ‘O E 2006. ‘OKU NE FAKAHAA’I MAI KUO MATEUTEU ‘A E KAKAI ‘O E FONUA (COMMONERS) KE FAKAHOKO ‘A E LILIU FAKA’AUFULI KI HE FO’I SISTEMI ‘OKU NE FAKALELE ‘A E KELEKELE ‘I TONGA, PEA ‘E A’U PE KI HE TU’UNGA NE ‘I AI ‘I HE 2006 ‘OKAPAU ‘E FU’U FIEMA’U.

‘OKU PEHE FOKI ‘E HE “HUMAN BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY (HBE) KO E TEFITO ‘O E TA’EFIEMALIE’ MO E FELAU’AKI ‘I TONGA KOE’UHI KO E ‘IKAI KE ONGO’I MALU ‘A E KAKAI KI HE ‘ENAU NGAAHI TOTONU KI HE KELEKELE PE ‘API TUKUHAU (INSECURE LAND RIGHTS), HE ‘OKU ‘ALU PE TAIMI KE TO E TOKOLAHI ANGE ‘A E KAKAI ‘I TONGA PEA ‘E SI’ISI’I ANGE AI ‘A E LELEI ‘OKU MA’U MEI HE KOLOA KELEKELE (  DECLINING LAND PRODUCTIVITY).

NE TALI FOKI ‘E HE PULE’ANGA KE SOLOVA ‘A E TA’EFIEMALIE ‘A E KAKAI ‘AKI ‘A HONO FAKALAHI HONAU KAU FAKAFOFONGA FAKAPOLITIKALE KI FALEALEA (POLITICAL REPRESENTATIVE). KA KOE’UHI KO E NGAAHI LILIU NE FAI KI HE KONISITUTONE ‘A TONGA ‘I HE 2010 NA ‘E ‘IKAI KE LILIU AI HA ME’A FEKAU’AKI MO E SISTEMI KI HE KELEKELE. ‘I HE ‘ENE PEHE LEVA, ‘E HOKOHOKO ATU PE ‘A E TA’EFIEMALIE ‘A E KAKAI ‘O TONGA KA E ‘OUA LEVA KE FAI HA LILIU KI HE LAO ‘O E KELEKELE PE KOHA NGAAHI LILIU KI HE MAFAI FAKAPOLITIKALE ‘OKU NE MAPULE’I HONO FAKALELE ‘O E KELEKELE ‘I TONGA (LAND TENURE). KO E NGAAHI LILIU KO IA ‘OKU FIEMA’U LEVA KI HE KAKAI ‘O TONGA KE FAKAMU’OMU’A ‘A ‘ENAU NGAAHI TOTONU FAKATAAUTAHA (INDIVIDUAL LIBERTIES) ‘I HE NGAAHI ‘ULUNGAANGA MO E FOUNGA FAKAFONUA NE OHI MAI MEI HE KUOHILI.

‘OKU LAHI ‘A E FAKALELEI ‘OKU TOTONU KE FAI KI HE KONISITUTONE MO E LAO KELEKELE KE FAKASI’ISI’I ‘AKI ‘A E MAFAI PULE ‘O E KAU NOPELE ‘I HE KELEKELE PE ‘API TUKUHAU ‘O E KAKAI ‘O TONGA. KE FAKAKAU ATU MO FAKATOKOLAHI ‘A E KAKAI ‘O TONGA ‘I HE TOTONU KI HE MA’U ‘API PEA FA’U MO HA NGAAHI LAO ‘E LAVA ‘E KINAUTOLU ‘OKU MA’U KELEKELE ‘O MA’U HA LELEI ‘OKU TO E LAHI ANGE, MEI HONAU NGAAHI ‘API TUKUHAU.

KO E ‘UHINGA IA ‘O E FET‘AKI MO E TA’EFIEMALIE ‘I TONGA, ‘O IKU AI KI HE NGAAHI MAKUKU FAKAPOLITIKALE (POLITICAL VIOLENT). HE KUO ‘OSI MATEUTEU ‘A E KAKAI ‘O TONGA KE FAI HANO SOLOVA ‘ENAU TA’EFIEMALIE ‘O KAMATA MEI HONO LILIU ‘O E LAO KI HE KELEKELE (LAND ACT).

KO KINAUTOLU KO IA KUO NAU PEHE KUO ‘OSI FAKATEMOKALATI ‘A TONGA, KE NAU TO E FAKATOKANGA’I ANGE, HE ‘OKU ‘IKAI NGATA PE ‘I HE MAMA’O ‘A TONGA MEI HE TAU’ATAINA ‘I HE SOSAIETI,  KA ‘OKU FIEMA’U ‘A E PULE’ANGA KE FAI HANO FOKOTU’UTU’U LELEI ‘A E LAO, KOE’UHI KA E TOKI LAVA KE MA’U ‘A E TAU’ATAINA ‘A E TOKOTAHA MA’U ‘API KI HE ’ENE KOLOA KELEKELE.

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